• Service: Advisory
  • Type: KPMG information
  • Date: 1/23/2014

Community monitoring and advocacy improves access to government services 

In Iraq, as a result of monitoring and advocacy by a network of CBOs in 88 communities in Erbil and Sulaymaniyah governorates (236 of 591 members being women), 70% community members reported improved government responsiveness to their requests and claims.
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Context and Theory of Change


Key elements of context


The GTF programme in Iraq took place in the northern Kurdish region, in the Sulaymaniyah and Erbil governorates. The Kurdish North has an autonomous parliament and is self-governing. It has been central to conflict and instability for decades, including attempted ethnic cleansing under Saddam Hussein’s regime, and fighting remains an on‐going threat along its Iranian and Turkish borders.


The 88 targeted communities within those governorates are particularly remote and marginalised, being situated 80km+ from the main cities. Kurdish rural livelihoods are unstable and poverty stricken, particularly as the area is experiencing its 15th successive year of drought. 75% of the rural poor live on less than $2 a day. Agriculture accounts for 10% of the economy in Iraq and employs 22% of the labour force, but receives just 1.1% government spending.


Prior to the GTF, few platforms existed for dialogue between citizens and their authorities, particularly in remote communities. Decision making regarding resources and service delivery lacked transparency and accountability. Most people would go to their tribal leaders rather than political representatives to resolve disputes, make claims or seek help. Government institutions have been built on strong patronage networks, further undermining their accountability to citizens. Civil society was weak in the region, and historic focus has been on aid, rather than empowerment and locally led rights‐based approaches.