Rangelands in the Waso Ngiro catchment have been traditionally managed by the Borana grazing systems, with ownership of the land vested in the community and supervised by an intricate governance mechanism with a hierarchy of organization at the “Olla” (several households), “Artha” (a cluster of Ollas) and “Dheeda” (a grazing area community). This hierarchical governance structure, with associated rules and regulations was used to manage the land effectively until recently, when it has experienced weakening due to land fragmentation, demographic changes and the influence of the State, amongst other reasons. This intricate system, is embedded in the notion of communal management, and enables mobility and negotiated access to key resources throughout the year, a system which is vital to ensure the productive management of these dryland landscapes. Drylands are typically characterized by low and erratic water availability, with low fertility soils and pasture productivity firmly dependent on precipitation. Resource availability in these areas is uncertain, and dynamic both within and across years and require systems of management that support the spreading of risk through mobility and seasonal access to resources.