United Kingdom


  • Service: Tax
  • Type: Press release
  • Date: 25/04/2013

KPMG identifies countries most active in using tax as green policy tool 

  • Six countries lead the KPMG Green Tax Index: US, Japan, UK, France, South Korea and China



The UK was today named by KPMG International as one of the six most active countries in using tax as a tool to drive sustainable corporate behaviour and achieve green policy goals.  Other countries on the list include the US, Japan, France, South Korea and China.


The finding is contained in the first KPMG Green Tax Index, launched today at the 2013 KPMG Asia Pacific Tax Summit in Shanghai.


The KPMG Green Tax Index explores how governments are using their tax systems to respond to global challenges including energy security, waste and recycling, water and resource scarcity, pollution and climate change.


It analyses green tax incentives and penalties in 21 major economies, focusing on key policy areas such as energy efficiency, water efficiency, carbon emissions, green innovation and green buildings.


The KPMG Green Tax Index is intended to raise corporate awareness of the rapidly evolving and complex global landscape of green tax incentives and penalties, and to encourage tax directors and sustainability chiefs to work together to factor green tax considerations into investment decisions.


“Green taxation is a rapidly evolving and increasingly complex area,” says Barbara Bell, Head of KPMG’s Environmental Tax team in the UK. “Businesses face a multitude of challenges worldwide, and those which operate on a multinational basis face a sometimes bewildering array of different taxes and incentives. And, yes, this is an area of tax management which requires an investment of knowledge and effort, not to mention resources. If addressed with knowledge and pro-activity, however, the challenges can become opportunities.”


“Governments are increasingly using green taxes as a tool to change corporate behaviour and to assist with environmental policy objectives. The UK’s landfill tax, for example, was introduced in 1996 and has had a marked and widely acknowledged impact in significantly reducing the amount of waste going to landfill.”


“Our analysis shows that at least 30 new green tax incentives, penalties or significant regulation changes have been introduced in the countries we studied since January 2011. A pro-active approach to green tax can help companies reduce the cost of strategic investments, drive innovation, improve efficiency and secure competitive advantage.”


The KPMG Green Tax Index – Overall Ranking



























South Korea







South Africa











The ranking shows:


  • The UK ranks 3rd and has a green tax approach balanced between penalties and incentives. The UK scores most highly in the area of carbon and climate change.


  • The US tops the ranking primarily due to its extensive program of federal tax incentives for energy efficiency, renewable energy and green buildings.


  • When green tax penalties alone are considered, the US drops to 14th, indicating that US green tax policy is weighted heavily in favor of incentives.


  • Japan is ranked 2nd overall but, in contrast to the US, scores higher on green tax penalties than it does on incentives. Japan also leads the ranking for tax measures to promote the use and manufacture of green vehicles.


  • France occupies 4th place in the overall ranking and is also unusual in that its green tax policy is more heavily weighted towards penalties than incentives.


  • South Korea ranks 5th overall and, in common with the US, has a green tax system weighted towards incentives rather than penalties. South Korea leads the ranking for green innovation which suggests that South Korea is especially active in using its tax code to encourage green research and development.


  • China ranks 6th with a green tax policy balanced between incentives and penalties and focused on resource efficiency (energy, water and materials) and green buildings.


  • The US uses green tax penalties less than other Western developed nations, apart from Canada. The only countries in the Index that impose fewer green tax penalties than the US or Canada are emerging economies such as Brazil, India, Mexico and Russia. China and South Africa are both more active than the US or Canada in imposing federal green tax penalties.


The KPMG Green Tax Index attributes scores to green tax incentives and penalties according to arguable value and potential to influence corporate behavior. Scores should be taken as indicative, not absolute, in providing a view of governments with the most active and developed green tax systems in place.

For more information, please visit www.kpmg.com/greentax


Notes to editors: about the KPMG Green Tax Index


The KPMG Green Tax Index focuses on 21 major economies around the world that KPMG International believes represent a major share of global corporate investment activity. A high ranking in the Index does not necessarily mean that a country is “greener” than others. It means that the government is more active than others in using the tax system as a tool to influence corporate behavior and achieve green policy goals.


A lower ranking does not mean that a government has no green tax or incentive instruments in place. Every nation listed on the KPMG Green Tax Index uses green taxes and incentives to an extent worthy of investigation by corporate tax and sustainability professionals.


Countries in which the government does not use green taxes or incentives at all, or does so only minimally, have not been included in the sample of countries selected for review in the Index.


The KPMG Green Tax Index attributes scores to all relevant green tax penalties and incentives identified, according to arguable value and potential to influence behavior.


Scoring has required some discretion and judgment to be used and so scores should be taken as indicative, not absolute, in providing a view of those governments with the most active and developed green tax and incentive systems in place. Full details of the scoring methodology can be found at www.kpmg.com/greentax


Scoring is limited to instruments that are part of a country’s tax code, i.e. tax penalties, credits, deductions, enhanced allowances, accelerated depreciation and indirect tax benefits. Many governments also use other incentives such as grants, subsidies and soft loans to influence corporate behavior. The Index highlights notable examples of such instruments where appropriate, but does not score them individually due to the sheer number and fluidity of these programs. Scoring has been limited to federal tax codes although the KPMG Green Tax Index highlights noteworthy examples of sub-national tax penalties and incentives.


About KPMG International


KPMG is a global network of professional firms providing Audit, Tax and Advisory services. We operate in 156 countries and have 152,000 people working in member firms around the world. The independent member firms of the KPMG network are affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative (“KPMG International”), a Swiss entity. Each KPMG firm is a legally distinct and separate entity and describes itself as such.




For more information, please contact:


Margot Cowhig

Senior PR Manager, Tax, Pensions, Economics, Climate Change and Sustainability

KPMG in the UK

Tel: +44 7920 274856

Email: margot.cowhig@kpmg.co.uk


Carolyn Forest

Head of External Communications, Global Tax

KPMG International

Tel: + 1 416 777 3857

Email: cforest@kpmg.ca


Samantha Arditti                               

PR Manager                                     

Center of Excellence for Climate Change & Sustainability                               

KPMG International                             

Tel: + 44 7815 778798                          

Email: sarditti@kpmg.com                       


Mark McKenzie

Global Director of Thought leadership

Center of Excellence for Climate Change & Sustainability                               

KPMG International                             

Tel: + 31 6 4676 1884

Email: mmckenzie@kpmg.com



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