• Service: Advisory, Management Consulting
  • Industry: Government & Public Sector, International Development Assistance Services
  • Type: Business and industry issue, Survey report
  • Date: 9/10/2013

Primary and Secondary Sources 

More than 70 secondary data variables were used to calculate the 2013 Change Readiness Index as well as 21 primary survey question responses, which were gathered from 545 country experts from 90 countries around the world. View the various cuts of the results in these ranking tables (PDF 220 KB). The full list of secondary data sources and the primary survey questions can be seen in the table below:

Government | People & Civil Society

Pillar 1: Enterprise

Enterprise Primary Variables Secondary Variables
Labor Market N/A Labour Freedom (IEF), Hybrid (Rigidity of Employment (WBDB)), Hiring and Firing Practices (WEF GCI), Cooperation in Labour-Employer Relations (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Flexibility of Wage Determination (WEF GCI), Pay and Productivity (WEF GCI)
Economic Diversification
  • How effective is the government in [Country X] at pursuing policies and measures that promote a well-diversified economy (e.g. one in which a good range of different industry sectors contribute to gross domestic product)?
Hybrid (Diversity of Exports by Country Exported to (UNCTAD)), Diversity of Exports by Variety of Products Exported (UNCTAD)
Innovation and R&D
  • How conducive is the policy and business environment in [Country X] to fostering innovation including business R&D and the contributions of public research institutions to innovation in R&D-intensive sectors?
Hybrid (Capacity for Innovation (WEF GCI), Innovation System KEI (WB), Researchers in R&D per Million Persons (WB), R&D Expenditure (% of GDP) (WB), Quality of Scientific Research Institutions (WEF GCI), Company Spending on R&D (WEF GCI), University-Industry Collaboration in R&D (WEF GCI), Availability of Scientists and Engineers (WEF GCI))
Business Environment
  • To what extent are registered private enterprises in [Country X] free from excessive bureaucracy in doing business, in practice as well as by law?
  • To what extent does the government of [Country X] pursue policies that promote new, emerging industry sectors with greater growth potential over the protection of less competitive, existing industries?
Business Freedom (IEF), Hybrid (Extent and Effect of Taxation (WEF GCI), Total Tax Rate (PWC)), Hybrid (Intensity of Local Competition (WEF GCI), Effectiveness of Anti-Monopoly Policy (WEF GCI)), Hybrid (Time to Start a Business (WBDB), Cost to Start a Business (WBDB), Average Cost of Bankruptcy Procedures (WBDB), Time Taken to Pay Taxes (WBDB), Time Taken to Register Property (WBDB), Time Taken to Enforce Contracts (WBDB), Burden of Government Regulation (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Strength of Investor Protection (WBDB), Efficacy of Corporate Boards (WEF GCI))
Financial Markets
  • How effective is the financial sector in [Country X]—in practice, and in terms of the regulatory framework— at successfully balancing the need to enhance broad access to finance with promoting financial stability?
Hybrid (Availability of Financial Services (WEF GCI), Financing Through Local Equity Market (WEF GCI), Venture Capital Availability (WEF GCI), Soundness of Banks (WEF GCI), Domestic Credit Provided by Banking Sector (WB))
Quality of Economic Infrastructure
  • How effective is the government in [Country X] at supporting and promoting the development of quality, well-functioning infrastructure that advances socioeconomic development and economic growth?
Quality of Overall Infrastructure (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Quality of Roads (WEF GCI), % Roads Paved (WB)), Hybrid (Quality of Air Transport Infrastructure (WEF GCI), Available Airline Seats (WEF GCI), Number of Air Passengers (WB)), Hybrid (Quality of Electricity Supply (WEF GCI), Value Lost to Electrical Outages (WB), Broadband internet Subscribers per Head (WB)), Hybrid (Quality of Railroad Infrastructure (WEF GCI), Quality of Port Infrastructure (WEF GCI))
Informal Sector
  • How quickly and effectively is the informal sector being productively integrated into the formal economy in [Country X]?
Trade Policy and Degree of Economic Openness N/A Exports of Goods and Services (% of GDP) (WB), FDI Stock (% of GDP) (UNCTAD), Hybrid (Tariff Rate (WB), Prevalence of Trade Barriers (WEF GCI), Trade Freedom (IEF)), Hybrid (Time to Import (WBDB), Time to Export (WBDB)), Hybrid (Cost to Export (WBDB), Cost to Import (WBDB)), Hybrid (Business Impact of Rules on FDI (WEF GCI), Prevalence of Foreign Ownership (WEF GCI)).

Enterprise | People & Civil Society

Pillar 2: Government

Government Primary Variables Secondary Variables
Macroeconomic Framework
  • Based on government management of the economy, to what extent does the government in [Country X] pursue macroeconomic policies that foster macroeconomic stability (including low and stable inflation rates and sound public finances) and support long-term economic growth?
Inflation Stability (IMF), Exchange Rate Stability (WB), Country Credit Rating (Institutional Investor), Gross National Savings (% GDP) (IMF), Average Inflation (IMF)
Public Administration and State Business Relations
  • To what extent does the relationship between government and business in [Country X] promote a healthy and dynamic economy (e.g., one that enables the private sector and government to respond effectively to changing conditions and new opportunities)?
Government Effectiveness Index (WB), Corruption Index (WB), State Legitimacy (FSI), Civil Service (FSI), Transparency of Government Policymaking (WEF GCI), Government Services for Improved Business Performance (WEF GCI)
Regulation N/A Regulatory Quality Index (WB), Efficiency of Legal Framework in Settling Disputes (WEF GCI), Efficiency of Legal Framework in Challenging Regulations (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Time to Deal With Construction Permits (WBDB), Cost to Deal With Construction Permits (WBDB))
Fiscal and Budgeting
  • How well does the government of [Country X] mobilize and manage resources as needed to respond effectively to short-term negative shocks, without jeopardizing macroeconomic stability?
Wastefulness of Government Spending (WEF GCI), Government Budget Balance (% GDP) (OE), Gross Government Debt (% of GDP) (IMF)
Government horizon scanning
  • How effective is the government of [Country X] at taking steps to foresee and understand, via exercises such as horizon scanning, and capitalize on future positive change and economic growth opportunities?
Respect for Rule of Law
  • To what extent is “respect for the rule of law” upheld in [Country X]? That is, do national authorities enforce policy reforms and regulations, in practice, supported by quality institutions such as an independent judiciary that operates with integrity?
Rule of Law Index (WB), Business Costs of Crime and Violence (WEF GCI), Business Costs of Terrorism (WEF GCI), Business Costs of Organized Crime (WEF GCI), Rule of Law Metric (FSI)
  • How effective is the government of [Country X] at taking steps to understand and respond to threats and opportunities posed by climate change and other environmental protection challenges?
Environmental Performance Index (Yale)
Food and Energy Security
  • How would you assess [Country X's] resilience in the short to medium-term for future disruption or unavailability of critical food supplies due to risk factors such as drought, transport disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, conflict, etc.?
  • How would you assess [Country X's] resilience in the short to medium-term for future disruption or unavailability of critical energy supply for domestic use due to risk factors such as transport disruptions, energy shortages, economic instability, conflict, etc.?

Enterprise | Government

Pillar 3: People & Civil Society

People &
Civil Society
Primary Variables Secondary Variables
Human Capital N/A Adult Literacy Rate (WB), Brain Drain (WEF GCI) , Hybrid (Quality of Education (WEF GCI), Quality of Math and Science Education (WEF GCI), Quality of Management Schools (WEF GCI)), Hybrid (Secondary Enrolment Rate (WB), Tertiary Enrolment Rate (WB)), Hybrid (Availability of Research and Training Facilities (WEF GCI)), Extent of Staff Training (WEF GCI)
Technology Uptake N/A Internet Access in Schools (WEF GCI), Hybrid (Generic Top-Level Domains (ZookNIC), Country Code Top Level Domains (ZOOKNIC), Wikipedia Monthly Edits (Wikimedia Foundation), Video Uploads on YouTube (Google))
  • Do the laws and the practices/customs of [Country X] typically give women the same opportunities as men to participate in the economy?
Labour Force Participation (ILO), Gender Inequality Index (UNDP) , Hybrid (Ratio of Female to Male Literacy Rate (WB), Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Primary Education, Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Secondary Education (WB), Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment in Tertiary Education (WB))
Inclusiveness of Growth
  • In the past few years, to what extent has economic growth in [Country X] been “inclusive”—meaning pro-poor and benefiting the entire population, rather than excluding significant parts of the population and regions within [Country X]?
Uneven Economic Development (FSI), Hybrid (Gini Coefficient (WB) , Income Share held by Highest 20% (WB), Poverty Headcount at National Poverty Line (WB), Hybrid (Loss Due to Inequality in Income (UN HDI), Loss Due to Inequality in Life Expectancy (UN HDI))
  • How well prepared is [Country X] to cope with the challenges related to demographic shifts expected over the next decade (e.g., aging population or rising numbers of youth that will impact the capacity and capability to manage and respond to change)?
Working Age Population Forecast (UN), International Migrant Stock (WB), Hybrid (Age Dependency Ratio (Old) (WB), Age Dependency Ratio (Young) (WB))
Civil Society
  • To what extent are civil society organizations allowed to influence and participate in important policy debates related to solving humanitarian, economic, environmental and other development issues in [Country X]?
Hybrid (Political Stability and Absence of Violence (WB), Civil Society Indicator (FSI), Voice and Accountability (WB), Freedom of Expression and Belief (FSI), EIU Democracy Index (EIU))
Safety Nets
  • How effectively and transparently are cash and in-kind transfers provided by NGOs, charities, natives of [Country X] living overseas, and other non-public sector sources channelled and allocated to provide immediate assistance to people in need in [Country X] during difficult economic times?
Social Capital Sub-Index (Legatum Institute), Hybrid (Workers' Remittances and Compensation of Employees Received (WB), External Intervention Measure (FSI))
  • To what extent are there incentives in [Country X] available through policy initiatives and/or via the private sector itself—that encourages entrepreneurship?
Entrepreneurship and Opportunity Sub-Index (Legatum Institute)
Access to Information N/A Press Freedom Index (Reporters Without Borders), Hybrid (ICT KEI (WB), E-Government Online Service (UN))
Health N/A Life Expectancy at Birth (WB), Infant Mortality Rate (WB)

Enterprise | Government | People & Civil Society

Source Acronyms
IEF Index of Economic Freedom
WB DB World Bank Doing Business Index
WB World Bank
WEF GCI World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
IMF International Monetary Fund
FSI Failed States Index
OE Oxford Economics
ILO International Labour Organization
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UN HDI/A United Nations Human Development Index
EIU Economist Intelligence Unit

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