• Service: Advisory, Management Consulting
  • Industry: Government & Public Sector, International Development Assistance Services
  • Type: Business and industry issue, Survey report
  • Date: 9/10/2013


The Change Readiness Index (CRI) covers 90 countries including the original 60 covered in the 2012 CRI plus a combination of additional developed and developing nations.

Country selection:

The countries are distributed across a range of income levels. Countries included in this Index were selected based on our ability to obtain sufficient or comparable primary and secondary data. The selection of countries provides a useful comparison between the change readiness of advanced and developing nations.

Country Income Group Economies according to GNI per capita1 Number of Countries (90) Share in Index Sample %
High >US$12,616 19 21
Upper middle US$4,086 - $12,615 27 30
Lower middle US$1,036 - $4,085 28 31
Low <US1,035< TD> 16 18

Scoring methodology:

The 2013 CRI is structured around three pillars (Enterprise Capability, Government Capability, People & Civil Society Capability), with sub-indices for each pillar, and primary survey question responses and secondary data variables feeding each sub-index score. The composite/overall change readiness score is calculated by weighting standardized pillar scores which are derived from weighted standardized sub-index scores. Sub-index scores are derived from standardized primary survey question responses and secondary data, with equal weighting given per variable, whether it is a primary survey question or secondary data indicator.


Enterprise Capability Government Capability
KPMG Survey
People & Civil Society Capability
Relates to broad capability of private and state-owned enterprises Relates to capability of governmental and public regulatory institutions Relates to individual, societal and cultural determinants of capability
Labor market Macroeconomic framework Human Capital
Economic Diversification Public administration and state business relations Entrepreneurship
Economic openness Civil society
Innovation and R&D Regulation Safety nets
Business Environment Fiscal and Budgeting Technology
Financial sector Rule of law Gender
Infrastructure Government strategic planning and horizon scanning Inclusiveness of growth
Informal Sector Demographics
  Environment Access to information
  Food and energy security Health

In addition to the secondary data, the researchers at Oxford Economics conducted a survey of country experts between February 2013 and April 2013. A total of 545 respondents were surveyed with a maximum of eight respondents per country and a minimum of five respondents in all cases. To account for any potential sample bias, small adjustments were made to primary survey results to account for variations in sample depending on expert location (inside or outside the country) and government affiliation2. An interesting observation was how experts living outside the country being surveyed were more critical of the country’s change readiness capacity than experts living in the country.


Who are the primary survey experts?

For the 2013 CRI, we surveyed individuals with at least 7 years of experience analyzing, studying or living in their reporting country. The individual had to have a good knowledge of economic policymaking, social structures and governance institutions in that country and was not currently employed directly by a government department in the country that directly influences and/or enforces policy making. A minimum of a tertiary-level educational qualification from an accredited university or vocational college degree program was required. Country experts came from a range of industries and sectors, where possible, including senior managers within the private sector, academia and trade unions.


2The expert is not currently employed by the government

Oxford Economics

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