Switzerland
Header Picture Swiss GAAP FER

HAM2 – The Harmonized Accounting Model for Cantons and Municipalities 

With the ongoing developments in accounting for public authorities (New Public Management, cost-accounting approach) and the stronger influence of the IPSAS, it was just a matter of time before the accounting for public authorities would become more "true and fair".

The following aspects were pivotal for the continuing development of HAM to HAM2

  • The accounting used by cantons and municipalities is to be harmonized as much as possible.
  • The accounting used by the cantons should be as close to the one used by the Federal government (NRM) as possible.
  • HAM's continuing development is mainly based on the IPSAS guidelines.
  • The revision takes into consideration the reforms implemented by various cantons and the federal government.
  • It also takes into account the international requirements in regard to financial statistics.


In order to cover all of these requirements, the persons preparing the accounts as well as those responsible and decision-makers have to make an effort to implement new aspects correctly and to explain the new presentation. Mainly, this revolves around:

  • Additional elements, such as statement of equity, cash flow statement and expanded Notes
  • Depreciation of all fixed assets according to useful life, and introduction of investment accounting
  • New chart of accounts and an adopted functional structure
  • A tiered statement of income and expenditures
  • Consolidated presentation
  • Financial key performance indicators

How can KPMG support you?

  • We are specialized in the audit of public institutions.
  • Interdisciplinary project teams will support you down to the last detail of your accounting and reporting, and will help you present related aspects in a new way.
  • Our integrated approach is based on tried and tested methods and procedures and will enable faster and better results.
  • We can assume a variety of roles, ranging from coaching to project management, even including body-leasing for complex aspects, thus coming up with tailored offers for your particular needs.
  • Harmonizing tasks will allow limiting project costs.

Michael Herzog

Michael Herzog

Partner, Sector Head Healthcare, Head Audit non-profit organizations and public sector entities

+41 58 249 40 68

Pierre Henri Pingeon

Pierre Henri Pingeon

Partner, Head Audit non-profit organizations and public sector entities western Switzerland

+41 58 249 38 00